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Analysis of data and presentation of findings: the analysis of data and presentation of the findings of the study with supporting data in the form of tables and charts be fully narrated best glucotrol xl 10 mg diabetes management. This order glucotrol xl 10mg amex diabetic diet on the go, in fact purchase 10 mg glucotrol xl visa gestational diabetes signs symptoms, happens to be the main body of the report usually extending over several chapters cheap 10mg glucotrol xl with amex metabolic disease in newborns symptoms. Conclusions: A detailed summary of the findings and the policy implications drawn from the results be explained. Technical appendices: Appendices be given for all technical matters relating to questionnaire, mathematical derivations, elaboration on particular technique of analysis and the like ones. The order presented above only gives a general idea of the nature of a technical report; the order of presentation may not necessarily be the same in all the technical reports. This, in other words, means that the presentation may vary in different reports; even the different sections outlined above will not always be the same, nor will all these sections appear in any particular report. It should, however, be remembered that even in a technical report, simple presentation and ready availability of the findings remain an important consideration and as such the liberal use of charts and diagrams is considered desirable. The simplification should be sought through clear writing, minimization of technical, particularly mathematical, details and liberal use of charts and diagrams. Attractive layout along with large print, many subheadings, even an occasional cartoon now and then is another characteristic feature of the popular report. Besides, in such a report emphasis is given on practical aspects and policy implications. The findings and their implications: Emphasis in the report is given on the findings of most practical interest and on the implications of these findings. Recommendations for action: Recommendations for action on the basis of the findings of the study is made in this section of the report. Objective of the study: A general review of how the problem arise is presented along with the specific objectives of the project under study. Methods employed: A brief and non-technical description of the methods and techniques used, including a short review of the data on which the study is based, is given in this part of the report. Results: This section constitutes the main body of the report wherein the results of the study are presented in clear and non-technical terms with liberal use of all sorts of illustrations such as charts, diagrams and the like ones. But the appendices are often not detailed if the report is entirely meant for general public. Interpretation and Report Writing 353 There can be several variations of the form in which a popular report can be prepared. The only important thing about such a report is that it gives emphasis on simplicity and policy implications from the operational point of view, avoiding the technical details of all sorts to the extent possible. The merit of this approach lies in the fact that it provides an opportunity for give-and-take decisions which generally lead to a better understanding of the findings and their implications. But the main demerit of this sort of presentation is the lack of any permanent record concerning the research details and it may be just possible that the findings may fade away from people’s memory even before an action is taken. In order to overcome this difficulty, a written report may be circulated before the oral presentation and referred to frequently during the discussion. Use of slides, wall charts and blackboards is quite helpful in contributing to clarity and in reducing the boredom, if any. Distributing a board outline, with a few important tables and charts concerning the research results, makes the listeners attentive who have a ready outline on which to focus their thinking. This very often happens in academic institutions where the researcher discusses his research findings and policy implications with others either in a seminar or in a group discussion. Thus, research results can be reported in more than one ways, but the usual practice adopted, in academic institutions particularly, is that of writing the Technical Report and then preparing several research papers to be discussed at various forums in one form or the other. But in practical field and with problems having policy implications, the technique followed is that of writing a popular report.
As the inhaler is a relatively new product cheap 10mg glucotrol xl mastercard diabetic diet patient handout, it is implied (as this is not explicitly discussed) that it is not unethical to compare the new inhaler with no active treatment in this group of smokers glucotrol xl 10mg fast delivery diabetic diet using exchanges. This is a different situation from buy cheap glucotrol xl diabete tipo 01, say purchase genuine glucotrol xl on-line metabolic disease workup, testing the effect of a new surgical procedure that is thought might improve on an existing procedure. So long as there is evidence that the existing procedure has some beneficial effect, it would be unacceptable to compare the new operation with no operation at all. No ethical committee would allow a study to proceed that did not address this matter appropriately. The main outcome, or measure of success (the ‘primary efficacy measure’) was defined as ‘self reported reduction of daily cigarette smoking by at least 50 per cent compared with baseline from week six to month four. Subjects Placebo should have ensured blinding, but it is likely that smokers who are highly nicotine dependent would notice that the active inhaler is having some effect on their craving, and vice versa for those with the placebo inhaler. By giving informed consent, all subjects would know they are being randomised to receive either active or inactive inhalers. Research team the research team would not know the allocation until completion of the study, but could probably pick up some signals in the follow-up assessments, based on comments by subjects. Health-care staff the most important staff are the independent pharmacists who dispensed the inhalers and they should have remained blind. Subjects • Could affect compliance if they felt they may be missing out on effective treatment. Research team May influence objectivity of data collection on outcomes and side effects. Health-care staff • Knowledge of allocation may influence modifications to treatment for related or other health problems, with management potentially differing between treatment and control subjects. Examples of interventions which cannot be blinded: • A surgical procedure, the nature of which is clearly obvious to those carrying it out and caring for the patient post-operatively; such procedures may well be apparent to the patient, at least post-operatively. It is possible that some of these could be blinded to the research team, or some members of it. The technique of blinding some people involved in the assessment of outcomes is very important. Thus, in an unblinded study, the outcome should, if possible, be assessed by people or techniques that are not influenced by the open nature of the study. Although this will not remove bias introduced by the subjects’ knowledge of their own treatment, the instrument is likely to be more objective than an interviewer (who is very likely to find out the allocation during the course of the interview). The result of this hypothesis test is as follows: chi-squared = 2 89 df = 1 0 1 > p > 0 05. Hypothesis tests can be applied to all the variables compared in Table 1 to establish whether any are unlikely to have arisen by chance. One should be wary of acting on such testing too rigidly for the following reasons. First, if (as in some studies) the baseline characteristics table has a large number of variables, applying hypothesis tests without adjustment for multiple comparisons could throw up significant results at the 0. Secondly, we should always remember that the great strength of randomisation is that it balances confounders that we know about, as well as those we do not know about and/or have not measured. While some variables we may have measured and displayed in a baseline characteristics table could differ between intervention and control groups, this could be ‘balanced’ by variation (in the opposite direction) among other influential variables we do not know about. Overenthusiastic adjustment for a few confounders we have measured and found to differ between groups may therefore actually disrupt what is, unknown to us, an overall well-balanced allocation.
If the technique of random-sampling is applied at all stages glucotrol xl 10mg otc diabetes prevention campaign, the sampling procedure is described as multi-stage random sampling 10 mg glucotrol xl amex us diabetes prevention. This design is usually adopted under acceptance sampling plan in the context of statistical quality control purchase 10mg glucotrol xl mastercard versteckte diabetes test. In practice buy generic glucotrol xl 10mg line undiagnosed diabetes definition, several of the methods of sampling described above may well be used in the same study in which case it can be called mixed sampling. It may be pointed out here that normally one Research Methodology: An Introduction 17 should resort to random sampling so that bias can be eliminated and sampling error can be estimated. But purposive sampling is considered desirable when the universe happens to be small and a known characteristic of it is to be studied intensively. Also, there are conditions under which sample designs other than random sampling may be considered better for reasons like convenience and low costs. The sample design to be used must be decided by the researcher taking into consideration the nature of the inquiry and other related factors. Collecting the data: In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate, and hence, it becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate. There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher. If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements, or the data, with the help of which he examines the truth contained in his hypothesis. But in the case of a survey, data can be collected by any one or more of the following ways: (i) By observation: This method implies the collection of information by way of investigator’s own observation, without interviewing the respondents. The information obtained relates to what is currently happening and is not complicated by either the past behaviour or future intentions or attitudes of respondents. This method is no doubt an expensive method and the information provided by this method is also very limited. As such this method is not suitable in inquiries where large samples are concerned. This method of collecting data is usually carried out in a structured way where output depends upon the ability of the interviewer to a large extent. This is not a very widely used method but it plays an important role in industrial surveys in developed regions, particularly, when the survey has to be accomplished in a very limited time. Questionnaires are mailed to the respondents with a request to return after completing the same. Before applying this method, usually a Pilot Study for testing the questionnaire is conduced which reveals the weaknesses, if any, of the questionnaire. Questionnaire to be used must be prepared very carefully so that it may prove to be effective in collecting the relevant information. Data are collected by filling up the schedules by enumerators on the basis of replies given by respondents. Much depends upon the capability of enumerators so far as this method is concerned. Some occasional field checks on the work of the enumerators may ensure sincere work. Though he should pay attention to all these factors but much depends upon the ability and experience of the researcher. Bowley very aptly remarks that in collection of statistical data commonsense is the chief requisite and experience the chief teacher. Execution of the project: Execution of the project is a very important step in the research process. If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable.
Again glucotrol xl 10 mg sale diabetes xmas cards, as in the case of ways of reasoning generic glucotrol xl 10mg amex blood glucose fluctuations, a middle way has also been formulated that draws on the useful characteristics of both approaches discount glucotrol xl 10mg visa diabetes yeast infections. Knowledge is derived using scientific method and based on sensory experience gained through experiments or com parative analysis order glucotrol xl 10mg with visa diabetic diet lose weight. It aims at developing a unique and elegant descrip tion of any chosen aspect of the world that is true regardless of what people think. By developing these scientific facts, knowledge is built up in a cumulative fashion, despite some false starts. Science builds on what is already known, for example, even Einstein’s radical theo ries are a development from Newton’s. The approach to knowledge is reductionist in character, by main taining that less measurable sciences are reducible to more measurable ones. Sociology is reducible to psychology, psychology to biology, biology to chemistry, and chemistry to physics. This does not mean that the world is not real, but rather that we can only experience it personally through our perceptions which are influenced by our preconceptions, beliefs and values; we are not neutral, disembodied observers but part of society. Unlike the natural sciences, the researcher is not observing phenomena from outside the system, but is inextricably bound into the human situation which he/she is studying. As well as concentrating on the search for constants in human behaviour which highlights the repetitive, predictable and invariant aspect of society the researcher does not ignore what is subjective, individual and creative – facts and values cannot be sepa rated. The researcher encounters a world already interpreted and his/ her job is to reveal this according to the meanings created by humans rather than to discover universal laws. Therefore there can be more than one perspective and interpretation of a phenomenon. The role of research To discover universal To reveal different laws and generalizations. Theoretical approach Rational, using inductive Subjective, using and scientific methods inductive methods and and value free data. Methods Experiments or Surveys and observations mathematical models with qualitative analysis and quantitative to seek meaningful analysis to validate, relationships and the reject or refine consequences of their hypotheses. Society is governed by Multitude of values a uniform set of values leading to complex and made possible only interactions. Table Just because the differences of perspective between positivist and relativist approaches are so radical, don’t think that you need to espouse purely one or the other approach. It denounces the meta-narratives (all embracing theories) of the modern movement as a product of the Enlighten ment, and insists on the inseparable links between knowledge and power. Science is just a construct and only one of many types of knowledge that are all subjects of continual reinvention and change. It is a complex combination of ideas that emerged in a fragmented fashion at the end of the nineteenth century but became highly developed by French social theorists such as Saussure, Barthes, Der rida, Foucault, Baudrillard and Leotard in the latter part of the twen tieth century. One of the strands of postmodernism examines the structure of language and how it is used. It challenges the assumption that lan guage can be precisely used to represent reality. Meanings of words are ambiguous, as words are only signs or labels given to concepts (what is signified) and therefore there is no necessary correspond ence between the word and the meaning, the signifier and the signified. This can be seen particularly in the media where it is difficult to distinguish the real from the unreal – everything is representation, there is no reality. In another strand of postmodernism, Foucault maintained that representations of knowledge are developed through types of discourse – discussions that are framed by the current accepted norms of institutions that are in positions of power within the intellectual establishment; such as universities, government bodies and funding institutions. In this way, scientific enquiry and the application of the knowledge gained by it, rather than being freely conducted, are chan nelled towards supporting the interests of these institutions.
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